In some underdeveloped countries, a variant of a carriage, a “car towed by a horse, is still the first choice of transport means, insofar as one does not want to walk. More than 5500 years ago, the oxen barrow were used.

Source: Wikipedia

The battery-powered locomotive, designed by Charles Page, existed

in 1851.

Source: Wikipedia

**1881** Trouvé Tricikel, Paris – first electric road vehicle

Source: Wikipedia

**1882** Ayrton and Perry introduced their version of an electric tricycle.

Source: Wikipedia

Elektromote by Werner was the first trolleybus in the world, manufactured by Siemens in Berlin **1882**.

Source: Wikipedia

**1887** Volk Electric introduced a new version of the electric tricycle – Dog-Cart

Source: Wikipedia

Flocken’s electric wagon tested the road in **1888**. The photograph shows the reconstruction of this vehicle by Franz Hagg.

Source: Wikipedia

In **1899** an electric car was built by Porche as “Semper Vivus” – always alive and was presented at the world exhibition in Paris in **1900**. The maximum speed of this car was 50km / h and it reached 50km by one charging.

Source: Wikipedia

## At the end of the 19th century, races with electric cars took place.

On April 29,** 1899**, Camille Jenatzy drove a record 105.882 km/h in the electric vehicle La Jamais Contente.

Source: Wikipedia

Lohner-Porsche built the four-wheel electric car of the year **1900**.

Source: Wikipedia

EMW 340 was built by Eisenacher Motorenwerke. It was built during the years **1949** and 1955.

Source: Wikipedia

DKW an electric truck was built between **1949** and **1962**, in Ingolstadt, with a power of 23.5 kW (32hp) and a maximum speed of 70 to 80 km / h.

Source: Wikipedia

In addition to electric cars, ideas about charging stations for electric commercial vehicles for urban transport with a maximum speed of 25 to 30 km / h and the ability to carry a distance of 60 to 80 km appeared. The charging station would allow you to quickly replace the empty battery with a fully charged one.

Source: Lastauto Omnibus Classic 1 from Mai **1940**

Ford Nucleon was a concept introduced in **1958** by Ford Motor Company. The car should propel on nuclear fuel. A smaller nuclear reactor supposed to be suspended between the rear wheels. One charge would be sufficient for 5000 miles (approx. 8000km), and the empty one would be replaced at the petrol station. Ford built 1 model in a ratio of 1: 2.66. The vehicle has never been manufactured. It is an example of many concepts from the 1950s, at the beginning of the atomic age.

Source: Wikipedia

The photo shows the Tama Model E4S-47 in one of the manufactured versions. The production began from **1947** in series in Japan. The power was 3.3 kW, the highest speed was 35 km/h and the transport capacity of the vehicle with one charge – the range 65 km. For speed control, the driver was equipped with a manual twist gearbox.

Source: Wikipedia

Enfield 8000, manufactured by Enfield-Neorion, **1973**, was equipped with a 6 kW electric motor and lead-acid battery. Altogether 120 cars were build. The maximum speed was 77 km/h and the range was approximately 64 km.

Source: Wikipedia

## From 2000 on:

Tesla Roadster **2006** with 248 bhp (251 PS/185 kW) at 8000 rpm and 286 Nm (211 lb · ft / 29.2 kgm) reaches a top speed of 209 km/h, with 46.0 g/km of carbon dioxide emissions.

Source: Auto Motor Sport

Framo Truck is the first series of electric trucks with a range of 250km, capacity from 57 to 318kWh and drive from 80 to 420 kW (peak power 480 kW).

Source: Auto Motor Sport

Autonomous personal rapid transit (PRT – Presonal Rapid Transit) for 4 persons with opportunity charging, has a top speed of 50km/h and a range of 30km. The PRT 2getthere system in Masdar was the first PRT system, which was opened to the public on November 28, **2010**. The system is now in the fifth year of operation and transports more than 30,000 passengers per month and achieves an excellent system availability of 99.9%. Location: Masdar city, Abu Dhabi

Source: 2getthere

In **2010,** the Dutch professor designed SUPERBUS (BEV), with a top speed of 250km/h and a power of 588kW, with a length of 15m and a height of 1.65m, it has the ability to transport 23 people 200km with a full battery. A prototype was built, which successfully passed the field test. On 15 May 2012, it received a registration plate and, consequently, a valid license for the transport of passengers.

Source: TU Delft

MAN Metropolis (BEV + range extender), with a top speed of 89km/h, a weight of 26t, a 105kWh battery, a power of 286kW, a torque of 1650 Nm, has 2 speeds. Last drive (REX): 3.0l TDI with 95kW generator. Range: daily change (8h + 2x 22m³). The truck is intended to collect garbage for about 150km. It was used near Antwerp, now in Munich.

Source: MAN / Benteler

## Expected:

Autonomous personal fast transit for 24 people, the upgrade of the PRT system, with autonomous management is planned in **2025**. The maximum speed will remain 50km/h, as well as the range 50km. Project location is Asia, Middle East, Netherlands (2018)

Source: 2getthere / ALTRAN

The MAN e-Truck (BEV) achieves the highest speed of 89 km/h, weighs 32 t, has a 154 kWh battery, 350 kW, a torque of 3450 Nm. The range is during the day with an opportunity charging of 150 kW, approximately 200 km.

Source: MAN

PSA OPEL eAMPERA has a power of 150 kW, a top speed of 150 km/ h, a maximum torque of 350Nm, a 60 kWh lithium-ion battery, range of 520 km (New European Driving Cycle – NEDC for Emission Determination)

Source: Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International / Auto Motor Sport

Nissan Leaf **2018** has a power of 110/160 kW, a top speed of 144 km/h, a maximum torque of 320 Nm, a 40/60 kWh lithium-ion battery and range of 378 / 500km (NEDC)

Source: Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International / Auto Motor Sport

e-Golf has a power of 100 kW, a top speed of 150 km / h, a maximum torque of 290 Nm, a lithium-ion battery of 35.8 kWh and range of 300 km (NEDC)

Source: Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International / Auto Motor Sport

TOYOTA MIRAI has a power of 114 kW, a top speed of 178 km / h, a maximum torque of 335 Nm, a fuel cell of 5kg (700bar) and has range of 500km (NEDC)

Source: TOYOTA

Tesla MODEL S has 315/515 kW, maximum speed 225/250 km/h, maximum torque 660 / app. 1000 Nm, lithium-ion battery 75/100 kWh and range 466 / 632km (NEDC).

Source: TESLA

Tesla MODEL X has a power of 245/386/568 kW, a top speed of 210/250 km/h, a maximum torque of 660 / app.1000 Nm, a lithium-ion battery of 75/100 kWh and range of 417 / 565km (NEDC)

Source: Wikipedia

Tesla MODEL 3 has a power of 192 kW, a top speed of 209/225 km/h, a maximum torque of 660 / app.1000 Nm, a lithium-ion battery 50/75 and range of 354/499 km (NEDC)

Source: TESLA

Tesla Model Roadster (Darkstar) has a power of 185 kW at 8000 rpm and a torque of 286 Nm (211 lb · ft / 29.2 kgm), a top speed of 209 km/h and a carbon dioxide emission of 46.0 g / km and range of 350 km.

Source: TESLA

The Asynchronous Road Scooter has a power of 30 kW, a maximum torque of 130 Nm, a battery of 20.6 Kw / h, range of 80 km and a top speed of 80 km/h.

Source: Wikipedia

Renault Kangoo Z.E. has a battery of 33 kWh, the highest speed is 80 to 115 km/h and range is up to 270 km depending on NEDC.

Source: Wikipedia

Kia Soul EV has a 81 kW, Lithium-ion polymer battery, range up to 200 km, maximum speed 145 km/h, maximum torque 285 Nm.

Source: Kia

## Future:

Audi Aicon, the study has four electric motors totaling 260 kW and 550 Nm of maximum torque, the one-charging range is 800 km at 130 km/h and 80% of the battery is charged in less than 30 minutes.

Source: Auto Motor Sport / VW

The Mercedes EQ Model is designed to have a specific total capacity of over 60 kWh and a range of about 400 km.

Source: Auto Motor Sport / VW

Borgward Model BXi7 is a 5/6/7-seater SUV, An e-motor at both the front and rear axle make the SUV a four-wheel drive, together the motors have an output of 200kW, a maximum torque of 400Nm, a lithium-ion battery, a maximum speed of 200 km/h and range of up to 500km.

Source: Borgward

Smart Vision EQ fortwo is the design of a 60 kW mini-vehicle with a maximum torque of 160 Nm, a capacity of 17.6 kWh and a range of 110 to 120 km.

Source: Wikipedia

e.GO Life 60 it is designed to have a 23.9 kWh lithium-ion battery, up to 194 km range, with a maximum speed of 160 km / h.

Source: e.GO

Road Scooter C16 Prototype 2014 from a 3D printer

Source: Wikipedia

Mercedes has designed the first urban e-Truck Mercedes, electric truck with a torque of 11,000 Nm, a maximum range of 200 km, a battery of 212 kWh and a power of 100 kW. The first such trucks were planned to be delivered to customers in 2017.

Source: Wikipedia/Mercedes-Benz

Special thanks go to Klaus Feldmann, e-Mobility Manager for Altran Engineering B.V. for an inspirational presentation. Acknowledgment also goes to the Interreg Europe Program.

Source: Airbus

Special thanks go to Klaus Feldmann, e-Mobility Manager for Altran Engineering B.V. for an inspirational presentation. Acknowledgment also goes to the Interreg Europe Program.